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Microalgal carotenoids and phytosterols regulate biochemical mechanisms involved in human health and disease prevention

Abstract : 1 2 Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that produce numerous bioactive molecules 3 that can be used as food supplement to prevent chronic disease installation. Indeed, they 4 produce phycobiliproteins, polysaccharides, lipids, carotenoids and sterolic compounds. The 5 use of microalgae in human nutrition provide a mixture of these molecules with synergistic 6 effect. 7 The aim of this review is to present the specific roles played by the xanthophylls, and 8 specifically astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, two high added value carotenoids, and by microalgal 9 phytosterols such as β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol on several cell mechanisms 10 involved in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases and cancers. 11 This review explains how these microalgal molecules modulate cell signaling pathways 12 involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, inflammation, apoptosis, invasion and 13 metastasis. Xanthophylls and phytosterols are involved in the reduction of inflammatory 14 markers in relation with the regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and nuclear factor-15 kappa B signaling pathways, and suppression of production of pro-inflammatory mediators. 16 Xanthophylls act on glucose and lipid metabolisms via both the upregulation of peroxisome 17 proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and glucose transporters and its effects on the 18 expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism. Their anti-19 cancer effects are related to the induction of intrinsic apoptosis due to down-regulation of key 20 regulatory kinases. The anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects are 21 correlated with decreased production of endothelial growth factors and of matrix 22 metalloproteinases. 23 Phytosterols have a major role on cholesterol absorption via modification of the activities of 24 Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 and ATP-binding cassette transporters and on cholesterol 25
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Manon Le Goff, Eric Le Ferrec, Claire Mayer, Virginie Mimouni, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, et al.. Microalgal carotenoids and phytosterols regulate biochemical mechanisms involved in human health and disease prevention. Biochimie, Elsevier, 2019, 167, pp.106-118. ⟨10.1016/j.biochi.2019.09.012⟩. ⟨hal-02302332⟩

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